Democratic Rights in Britain

Join the protest to oppose his extradition to the United States!

Julian Assange to appear Monday at Westminster Magistrates Court

By our reporters, 19 October 2019

The World Socialist Web Site urges the widest support for Monday’s demonstration outside Westminster Magistrates Court in London starting at 9 a.m.

Metropolitan Police impose London-wide ban on Extinction Rebellion protests as arrests top 1,600

By Chris Marsden, 16 October 2019

The ban was followed by the despatch of hundreds of police to clear tents from Trafalgar Square, the one area where protests have previously been sanctioned.

Mass arrests continue in London and other cities in global Extinction Rebellion protests

By Robert Stevens, 14 October 2019

By Sunday afternoon, police had arrested 1,309 protesters in London, more than were arrested in the first wave of demonstrations in April.

M.I.A. visits Julian Assange in prison: “It’s about truth—and that’s something people have to uphold and fight for”

By Laura Tiernan, 14 October 2019

Speaking at a press conference outside Belmarsh late Saturday afternoon, M.I.A.—Sri Lankan-born Mathangi ‘Maya’ Arulpragasam—condemned Assange’s tormentors, indicting the US and UK governments, the courts and the corporate media.

US protects NSA spy’s wife wanted in UK over teenager’s death

By Laura Tiernan, 9 October 2019

Anne Sacoolas is wanted by police over the death of the young motorcyclist in Northamptonshire on August 27 but left the UK claiming diplomatic immunity

Hundreds of Extinction Rebellion protesters arrested in central London

By Steve James, 9 October 2019

Over 500 peaceful climate protestors have been arrested in central London in just two days as part of an escalating response from the British state aimed at outlawing mass environmental protest as a form of terrorism.

Disgraced academic Noah Carl spearheads far-right campaign on UK campuses

By Thomas Scripps, 7 October 2019

Eugenicist Carl has raised over $100,000 to begin a legal appeal against the St. Edmund’s College decision to rescind his appointment, on the grounds of wrongful dismissal.

Assange judge blocks extradition to Azerbaijan of ‘McMafia’ wife

By Laura Tiernan, 2 October 2019

Arbuthnot ruled against the extradition of Zamira Hajiyeva, finding there was “a real risk” she would suffer a “flagrant denial of justice”.

London: Hundreds rally for Assange outside Belmarsh Prison

By Laura Tiernan, 30 September 2019

SEP National Secretary Chris Marsden emphasised that Assange’s persecution was a product of the drive to war and dictatorial rule by the US, British and world imperialism.

Protesters speak out in defence of Julian Assange

“I think the implications can grow into a stamping out of independent journalism”

By our reporters, 30 September 2019

Protesters outside Belmarsh Prison in London on Saturday spoke in support of jailed WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange.

The socialist answer to Brexit: For the United Socialist States of Europe

By Chris Marsden, 27 September 2019

The answer to the Brexit crisis is not unity with the EU, but working class unity in a continent-wide struggle against all of Europe’s governments for the United Socialist States of Europe.

UK Supreme Court rules Johnson’s prorogation of Parliament illegal

By Robert Stevens and Chris Marsden, 25 September 2019

British politics entered uncharted waters yesterday as the Supreme Court—the UK’s highest judicial body—declared illegal Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s authoritarian prorogation of parliament.

Factional warfare over Brexit dominates Labour Party conference

By Robert Stevens and Chris Marsden, 23 September 2019

After one political capitulation after another, Corbyn is left fending off speculation that he may be forced to quit as even his innermost circle comes out against him.

Police surveillance used to report disabled protesters to UK government for alleged benefit fraud

By Dennis Moore, 23 September 2019

Many disabled activists have raised concerns that police have passed on information about disabled protesters who participate in demonstrations against welfare cuts and anti-austerity movements.

Attend September 28 demonstration at London’s Belmarsh prison to demand freedom for Julian Assange!

By our reporter, 20 September 2019

The rally has been called by the Julian Assange Defence Committee (JADC) to demand Assange’s freedom from the high-security jail in London.

UK “justice” system tortures Julian Assange, treats fascist Tommy Robinson with kid gloves

By Thomas Scripps, 19 September 2019

The polar opposite treatment of Assange and Robinson by the British state underscores the bogus character of attempts by the far right to equate the two.

What is at stake in the British Supreme Court’s ruling on the proroguing of Parliament?

By Thomas Scripps, 18 September 2019

The Supreme Court has to decide whether the courts can legitimately pass judgement on prorogation and, if so, whether Johnson’s suspension of parliament was legal.

Scottish father of two beaten to death in a prison in 2015

Fatal Accident Inquiry finds death was “entirely preventable”

By Steve James, 16 September 2019

Allan Marshall, father of two, was beaten to death in Saughton prison, Edinburgh, in 2015. A Fatal Accident Inquiry has found his death was “ entirely preventable.”

The Brexit crisis and the struggle for the unity and political independence of the working class

By Thomas Scripps, 16 September 2019

The authoritarian turn represented by Johnson’s prorogation of parliament is the most advanced expression of the breakdown of the traditional mechanisms of parliamentary rule.

British judge jails Assange indefinitely, despite end of prison sentence

By Oscar Grenfell, 14 September 2019

The ruling, which confines Assange to prison indefinitely, is the latest in a series of attacks on his legal and democratic rights by the British judiciary.

Labour Party revokes Electronic Intifada journalist’s press pass in bid to suppress left-wing criticism

By Jean Shaoul, 14 September 2019

Labour’s censorship of Electronic Intifada is bound up with the Labour right’s efforts to silence critics of its slanderous witch-hunt of party leader Jeremy Corbyn’s left-wing supporters.

Scottish court rules Johnson’s suspension of parliament unlawful

By Robert Stevens, 12 September 2019

Scotland’s highest court, the Edinburgh Court of Session, ruled on appeal yesterday that Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s proroguing of parliament for five weeks was unlawful.

As Brexit deadline nears

UK government intensifies attack on freedom of movement

By Margot Miller, 12 September 2019

UK Home Secretary Priti Patel announced last week that government policy on movement to and from the EU would be “tougher” after October 31.

UK government to target “far left” in revised Counter Extremism Strategy

By Laura Tiernan, 10 September 2019

Amid the most acute crisis of capitalist rule since the 1930s, the report is preparation for state repression against the working class and its revolutionary vanguard.

Media blacks out Roger Waters’ performance in defence of Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 5 September 2019

The media silence is an act of political censorship, carried out in order to assist the US and British governments persecute WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange.

Roger Waters and John Pilger make powerful defence of Julian Assange in London

By our reporters, 3 September 2019

Pilger stated: “By defending Julian Assange, we defend our most sacred rights. Speak up now or wake up one morning to the silence of a new kind of tyranny.”

Roger Waters holds concert on Monday

Take forward the fight to free Julian Assange!

By Joseph Kishore, 2 September 2019

Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning are the victims of a monstrous criminal conspiracy, involving the most powerful governments in the world, the intelligence agencies and the corporate media.

Johnson’s proroguing of Parliament: The British ruling class declares war on democratic rights

By Chris Marsden, 30 August 2019

The move by UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson to prorogue the “Mother of Parliaments” and govern by executive fiat is part of a turn toward dictatorial forms of rule by the ruling classes throughout the world.

UK Home Office set up fake social media network to target young British Muslims

By Tania Kent, 30 August 2019

“This is Woke,” which describes itself as engaging “in critical discussions around Muslim identity, tradition and reform,” was created by a media company on behalf of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism at the Home Office.

Johnson to suspend UK parliament to push through Brexit in a major assault on democratic rule

By Chris Marsden, 29 August 2019

Johnson’s efforts to bypass parliament and govern by executive fiat are part of an international turn toward dictatorial forms of rule throughout the world.

UK: Johnson considers suspending parliament to enforce no-deal Brexit

By Robert Stevens, 27 August 2019

The fact that the suspension of parliament to thwart opposition to government policy is being considered for the first time in more than 70 years is a testament to the crisis wracking British imperialism.

Demo article just for testing

UK: Johnson considers suspending parliament to enforce no-deal Brexit

By Robert Stevens and Zweiter Autor, 27 August 2019

The fact that the suspension of parliament to thwart opposition to government policy is being considered for the first time in more than 70 years is a testament to the crisis wracking British imperialism.

UK High Court rules in favour of spy agencies

By Trevor Johnson, 23 August 2019

It is now legal for state agents to hack into large numbers of electronic devices, without any grounds for suspicion, on the say-so of judges.

Socialist Equality Party wins support for Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning at Manchester Peterloo Massacre commemoration

By our reporters, 22 August 2019

SEP campaigners distributed WSWS’s call for a worldwide campaign to defend Assange and Manning.

UK government prepares for social unrest following no-deal Brexit

By Robert Stevens, 21 August 2019

The crisis wracking the ruling elite over Brexit is the most severe since the Second World War.

Julian Assange’s father warns WikiLeaks’ publisher’s health is “declining rapidly” in Belmarsh Prison

By Oscar Grenfell, 20 August 2019

”The government will willingly sacrifice Julian’s well-being to the demands of the US and the UK.”

Blairites and Zionists escalate witch-hunt of Labour MP Chris Williamson

By Robert Stevens, 20 August 2019

Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has refused to issue a single public word in defence of his former shadow cabinet minister.

Guardian columnist Owen Jones attacked by fascist thugs in London

By Robert Stevens, 19 August 2019

The attack is the latest on prominent left-wing figures and political organisations.

Australian investigative journalist exposes Guardian/New York Times betrayal of Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 10 August 2019

Mark Davis made clear that the corporate media cynically exploited WikiLeaks, before ruthlessly turning on its founder Julian Assange and joining the state campaign against him.

Labour-controlled Tower Hamlets council refused to host Palestinian charity event, citing “anti-Semitism” fears

By Jean Shaoul, 6 August 2019

The decision is a blatant attack on free speech and confirms that the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance definition of anti-Semitism provides a mechanism for censoring, silencing and even criminalising individuals and organisations that oppose Israel’s brutal suppression of the Palestinians, while slandering the entire left as “anti-Semitic.”

UK: Over 1,300 homeless people penalised last year under the 1824 Vagrancy Act

By Joe Mount, 2 August 2019

The Act was used to prosecute 1,320 people during 2018 and is most commonly employed by police as a threat to force rough sleepers to relocate.

Media silent on dismissal of DNC suit against Julian Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 2 August 2019

Having trumpeted the slander that Assange is a “Russian agent” for the past three years, the New York Times, the Washington Post and other corporate outlets have blacked out a court decision refuting their lies.

Julian Assange’s lawyer briefs Australian parliamentarians on his persecution

By Oscar Grenfell, 1 August 2019

The event reflected concerns within the ruling elite over popular opposition to the Trump administration’s bid to prosecute the WikiLeaks founder.

US, Sweden and Britain dismiss UN finding that they tortured Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 29 July 2019

The responses to the detailed indictment issued by UN Special Rapporteur on Torture Nils Melzer are the latest demonstration of the illegal character of the campaign against the WikiLeaks founder.

UK: Boris Johnson selects extreme right cabinet

By Chris Marsden and Robert Stevens, 26 July 2019

Johnson’s is a class war government, with all the main positions filled by representatives of the extreme right of a very right-wing party.

UK: Strong support for Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning at Tolpuddle Martyrs Festival

By our reporters, 23 July 2019

One section of marchers cheered when they saw the SEP’s stall with posters of Assange and Manning, and many others stopped to voice their support.

Hundreds protest over drowning of refugee schoolgirl in UK

By Liz Smith, 17 July 2019

In the area surrounding the school just outside Manchester, one-third of all children live in poverty, that is in families whose income is less than 60 percent of the national median income.

The Assange precedent: Journalists in Britain threatened with Official Secrets Act

By Robert Stevens and Laura Tiernan, 16 July 2019

What the Metropolitan Police proposed was the de facto criminalisation of journalism so that it could be bracketed within terrorist activity.

Fascist Tommy Robinson jailed for jeopardising rape trial in Leeds

By Laura Tiernan, 12 July 2019

Robinson’s contempt case has been seized on by an international network of fascist and far-right politicians who have boosted him as a “free speech martyr.”

Judge Emma Arbuthnot refuses to recuse herself in show trial of Julian Assange

By Thomas Scripps, 11 July 2019

Assange’s scalp must be taken at all costs to further imperialism’s colonial-style wars of conquest and global war on the social and democratic rights of the working class

Britain: Gang convicted of running “extensive and prolific” modern slavery network

By Richard Tyler, 9 July 2019

According to the International Labour Office, there are 40.3 million people in conditions of modern slavery across the world, including 10 million children .

UK’s GCHQ spy centre seeks new powers to circumvent encryption

By Thomas Scripps, 6 July 2019

The new surveillance measures, known as a “ghost protocol,” would allow a government agent to “sit in” on ostensibly secure private conversations without other participants knowing.

Debate on Julian Assange at London’s Frontline Club for journalists

By Jean Shaoul, 5 July 2019

Guardian columnist Suzanne Moore, arguably the most despised among the advertised speakers, pulled out at the last minute.

UK: GCHQ/MI5 admit illegally spying on millions

By Trevor Johnson, 2 July 2019

Their admissions were the result of a court case brought by the civil rights group Liberty.

Petition against UK “drill” music ban defends freedom of speech

By Paul Bond, 29 June 2019

Rap artists Krept and Konan’s petition points to the moral bankruptcy of state attempts to blame drill music for violence and crime.

Royal Marines from anti-Russia exercise daubed swastikas on chest

By Thomas Scripps, 28 June 2019

The marines were part of the Future Commando Force (FCF) taking part in Exercise Baltic Protector, described in the UK media as designed “to strike fear” into Putin.

More than 300 asylum seekers in Glasgow, Scotland to be evicted

By Steve James, 28 June 2019

Services giant Serco is targeting tenants who have fled war and poverty in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan.

Watch the Sydney rally to free Assange live!

28 June 2019

The SEP rally is among the first events to be held since the WSWS International Editorial Board called for the formation of a Global Defence Committee to demand freedom for Assange and Manning.

Socialist Equality Party (UK) public meeting

For a global campaign to prevent Julian Assange’s rendition to the US!

27 June 2019

On June 20 the WSWS issued a call for the formation of a Global Defence Committee to secure freedom for Wikileaks founder and class-war prisoner Julian Assange.

Conservative Party leadership contest

Boris Johnson poised to replace May as UK prime minister

By Robert Stevens, 21 June 2019

The contest between Johnson and Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt will now be decided by the Tories’ 160,000 members, who will vote in a postal ballot, with the winner to be announced the week of July 22.

London: Julian Assange Defence Committee lobbies Jeremy Corbyn’s Constituency Labour Party

“This is not a time for fence-sitting”

By our reporters, 21 June 2019

The Julian Assange Defence Committee urged rank-and-file Labour Party members in leader Jeremy Corbyn’s constituency to oppose US extradition proceedings against WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange.

Grenfell fire anniversary used by pseudo-left to boost Labour and Corbyn

By Robert Stevens, 17 June 2019

All the saccharine words and carefully orchestrated scenes on the part of the government cannot conceal the contempt it has for the Grenfell survivors.

“Everyone is fighting for justice, not only for the people for Grenfell Tower, but all the people around the world”

Family members and supporters of Grenfell fire victims speak to the WSWS

By our reporters, 17 June 2019

Hamid expressed the frustration of all the bereaved Grenfell families that they have still not been given answers as to why their loved ones perished and who is responsible.

WikiLeaks publisher Assange faces US extradition trial next February

By Robert Stevens, 15 June 2019

The UK government has made clear that it will do everything possible to expedite Washington’s vindictive attempt to render the courageous journalist to face imprisonment, torture, and execution in the US.

Activist Lauri Love and others speak out in defence of Assange

By our reporters, 15 June 2019

Members of the Julian Assange Defence Committee and the SEP were joined by people from across London and further afield, including two “Yellow Vest” protestors from France.

UK home secretary signs US extradition request for Julian Assange

By Mike Head, 14 June 2019

The move, coming just one day before Assange’s first extradition hearing, makes clear the British government’s intent to hand the journalist over to his persecutors in Washington.

UK police seek to prosecute 1,130 Extinction Rebellion climate change protestors

By Alice Summers, 13 June 2019

The moves against peaceful climate protesters are aimed at criminalizing political dissent.

US issues formal request for Assange’s extradition

By Oscar Grenfell, 11 June 2019

The Trump administration is pressing ahead with its attempt to prosecute the WikiLeaks founder over his role in the exposure of US war crimes and diplomatic conspiracies.

Free Reis Morris! Grenfell Tower campaigner imprisoned while those guilty of social murder walk free

By the Socialist Equality Party (UK), 8 June 2019

Morris’s jailing is a vicious act of class justice aimed at suppressing opposition and protecting those responsible for 72 deaths in the Grenfell Tower inferno two years ago.

WikiLeaks warns US Justice Department preparing more charges against Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 7 June 2019

The threat of new charges against the persecuted journalist, already facing 170 years in prison, comes amid fresh fears about his health after his father reported a “short notice” medical appointment.

UN Special Rapporteur on Torture warns Julian Assange could die in prison

By Kevin Reed, 6 June 2019

The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture said in an Australian radio interview on June 1 that Julian Assange could die in jail if his persecution is not ended here and now.

Protests in London and Edinburgh demand freedom for Assange and Manning

By our reporters, 3 June 2019

A protest in Trafalgar Square on Saturday was organised via social media and endorsed by the Julian Assange Defence Committee.

On the spot report: Protest outside Westminster Magistrates Court demands freedom for gravely ill Julian Assange

By our reporters, 31 May 2019

Around 100 people demonstrated outside Westminster Magistrates Court Thursday morning to oppose US extradition proceedings targeting WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange.

Despite Assange’s ill-health, Swedish court rejects delay to hearing

By Oscar Grenfell, 29 May 2019

The ruling is the latest example of the international legal vendetta being perpetrated against the WikiLeaks founder.

An appeal to young people

Defend the right to tell the truth! Defend Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning!

By the International Youth and Students for Social Equality, 24 May 2019

The following statement is being distributed today at climate change protests across the UK.

On the spot report: Ecuador’s government colludes with Washington to seize Julian Assange’s possessions

By Robert Stevens and Chris Marsden, 21 May 2019

Supporters of Assange began gathering by 8 a.m. yesterday outside the embassy to witness and denounce the search and seizure.

George Galloway tried to become Brexit Party candidate—and failed

By Robert Stevens, 17 May 2019

Galloway’s failed attempt to represent Nigel Farage’s party is indicative of how an entire layer of ex-Stalinists and the pseudo-left have become part of a new right.

Speech by Oscar Grenfell

Millions in Australia “view Assange as a hero who is being attacked for revealing the truth.”

By Oscar Grenfell, 17 May 2019

We are publishing here the speech of Oscar Grenfell, a leading member of the Socialist Equality Party (Australia) and national convenor of the International Youth and Students for Social Equality, at the May 12 meeting in London in defence of Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning.

Clara Campos of the Julian Assange Defence Committee:

“We must act now in mobilising to free him. He is one of us.”

By Clara Campos, 17 May 2019

We are publishing here the remarks of Clara Campos, a representative of the Julian Assange Defence Committee, who spoke at the May 12 meeting in London in defense of Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning.

“The IYSSE will redouble its efforts to build a mass movement of young people in Assange’s defence”

By Alice Summers, 15 May 2019

We are publishing the speech of the IYSSE representative at the May 12 meeting in London in defence of Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning.

Australia: Rally to defend Julian Assange held in Broadmeadows, Melbourne

By our reporters, 14 May 2019

The event drew a small but determined crowd of SEP members and supporters, local workers, and WikiLeaks’ supporters.

Free Assange NZ denounces hypocrisy at World Press Freedom Day event

By Tom Peters, 11 May 2019

Alex Hills from Free Assange New Zealand condemned the British government’s “brazen hypocrisy” and called on the media to “end the smears and lies about an anti-war hero.”

“We need to save his life. That’s how serious it is”

Pamela Anderson and WikiLeaks editor-in-chief visit Julian Assange in prison

By Laura Tiernan, 8 May 2019

Anderson condemned the state persecution of her friend as a “misrule of law in operation.”

UK government seeks to deny legal aid to Shamima Begum

By Paul Bond, 8 May 2019

Home Secretary Sajid Javid revoked Begum’s British citizenship last year, leaving her and her new-born baby stranded in appalling conditions and stateless.

Britain: National Union of Journalists World Press Freedom Day event ignores Julian Assange

By Paul Mitchell, 7 May 2019

At the NUJ’s World Press Freedom Day event, there was not a single mention of Assange by any of the speakers on the platform, all of whom claimed to be champions of press freedom.

“Today’s protest is a symbol of the fight for freedom”

French Yellow Vests join Assange extradition protest in London

By our reporters, 3 May 2019

WSWS reporters spoke to demonstrators outside Westminster Magistrates Court protesting plans to extradite the WikiLeaks founder to the US.

UN official visits Julian Assange, investigating Ecuador’s illegal surveillance

By Mike Head, 26 April 2019

Confronted by worldwide protests and petitions, the British government felt compelled to grant the UN access to the imprisoned WikiLeaks founder.

UK: May unable to stem Tory crisis over Brexit, but still propped up by Corbyn

By Robert Stevens, 26 April 2019

For Corbyn’s faction, the political function of these talks over Brexit is to side-line a discussion on the political crisis facing the government that could precipitate a general election.

Julian Assange was denied access to lawyers, visitors in Britain’s Belmarsh prison

By Oscar Grenfell, 24 April 2019

The reported denial of the WikiLeaks founder’s right to consult his legal counsel, for over a week, casts grave doubt that he will be afforded due process.

Police arrest over 1,000 climate change protesters in London

By Robert Stevens, 23 April 2019

Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has issued no statement condemning the mass arrest of peaceful protesters.

Hundreds of peaceful climate change protesters arrested in UK

By Paul Mitchell, 18 April 2019

There have been no serious incidents of public disorder except when the police arrived in large numbers and swooped in to arrest people.

Youth at climate rally in Leeds, England speak out to defend Julian Assange

By our reporters, 16 April 2019

WSWS reporters spoke about the arrest and imprisoning of Julian Assange with young people who attended last Friday’s rally against climate change in Leeds, England.

Stop the extraordinary rendition of Julian Assange!

By Eric London, 15 April 2019

What is being presented as an extradition request by the US is so loaded with illegality that it would be more precise to call it an extraordinary rendition.

UK Labour leads “rape” smears against Julian Assange demanding Swedish extradition

By Laura Tiernan, 15 April 2019

This is the Blairites’ answer to global public outrage over Assange’s brutal seizure from the Ecuadorian embassy in London on Thursday.

Protest outside London’s Belmarsh prison demands release of Julian Assange

By our reporters, 15 April 2019

The WikiLeaks founder has been held at the maximum-security prison since his forcible seizure and arrest last Thursday.

Supporters protesting outside Belmarsh prison speak out in defense of Julian Assange

By our reporters, 15 April 2019

Protesters at Saturday’s demonstration to demand the release of Julian Assange from Belmarsh prison spoke to the World Socialist Web Site.

Socialist Equality Party (UK) member Robert Stevens speaks at rally to demand release of Assange from Belmarsh prison

By our reporter, 15 April 2019

Stevens said, “Join the fight to defend Assange, Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden. Workers and youth internationally must mobilise immediately to defend these class war prisoners.”

The Assange arrest is a warning from history

Comment by John Pilger, 13 April 2019

John Pilger, well-known filmmaker and investigative journalist, issued the following statement on the arrest of WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange in the Ecuadorian embassy in London on April 11.

“The fight starts now to prevent his extradition to the United States!”

Supporters to rally in defence of Assange outside Belmarsh Prison, London

By our reporters, 13 April 2019

The protests organised by the Julian Assange Defence Committee and supported by the Socialist Equality Party (UK) and the WSWS will be held from 4pm today.

Worldwide outrage over arrest of WikiLeaks publisher Julian Assange

By Niles Niemuth, 12 April 2019

After nearly seven years of confinement to the Ecuadorian embassy in London, Assange now faces the possibility of a year in a UK prison and extradition to the United States.