History

David North refutes falsifications of Trotsky’s life at lectures in Scotland and Wales

By our correspondents, 30 April 2007

In a lecture delivered at the universities of Glasgow in Scotland and Cardiff in Wales, World Socialist Web Site editorial board chairman David North challenged the falsification of the historical role of Leon Trotsky contained in two recent biographies authored by British historians Ian Thatcher and Geoffrey Swain.

David North refutes falsifications of Trotsky’s life at lectures in Scotland and Wales

By our reporters, 30 April 2007

In lectures given in Scotland and Wales World Socialist Web Site editorial board chairman David North challenged the falsification of the historical role of Leon Trotsky contained in two recent biographies authored by British historians Ian Thatcher and Geoffrey Swain.

Lecture nine: The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International

Part 3

By Peter Schwarz, 13 October 2005

The following is the third and concluding part of the lecture “The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International.” It was delivered by Peter Schwarz, the secretary of the International Committee of the Fourth International and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Parts one and two were posted October 11 and October 12.

Lecture nine: The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International

Part 2

By Peter Schwarz, 12 October 2005

The following is the scond part of the lecture “The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International.” It was delivered by Peter Schwarz, the secretary of the International Committee of the Fourth International and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be presented in three parts. Part one was posted October 11.

The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International

By Peter Schwarz, 11 October 2005

The lecture was delivered by Peter Schwarz, the secretary of the International Committee of the Fourth International and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lecture nine: The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International

Part 1

By Peter Schwarz, 11 October 2005

The following is the first part of the lecture “The rise of fascism in Germany and the collapse of the Communist International.” It was delivered by Peter Schwarz, the secretary of the International Committee of the Fourth International and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be presented in three parts. (See Part 2 and Part 3).

Lecture eight: The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism

Part 5

By Nick Beams, 10 October 2005

The following is the fifth and concluding part of the lecture “The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism.” It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Part one were posted October 5, Part two on October 6, Part three on October 7 and Part four on October 8.

Lecture eight: The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism

Part 4

By Nick Beams, 8 October 2005

The following is the fourth part of the lecture “The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism.” It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be presented in five parts. Part one were posted October 5, Part two on October 6 and Part three on October 7.

Lecture eight: The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism

Part 3

By Nick Beams, 7 October 2005

The following is the third part of the lecture “The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism.” It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be presented in five parts. Part one were posted October 5 and part two on October 6.

Lecture eight: The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism

Part 2

By Nick Beams, 6 October 2005

The following is the second part of the lecture “The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism.” It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be presented in five parts. Part one was posted October 5.

The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism

By Nick Beams, 5 October 2005

The following lecture was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lecture eight: The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism

Part 1

By Nick Beams, 5 October 2005

The following is the first part of the lecture “The 1920s—the road to depression and fascism.” It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be presented in five parts. (See Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 and Part 5)

Lecture seven: Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over “proletarian culture”

Part 4

By David Walsh, 4 October 2005

The following is the fourth and final part of the lecture “Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over ‘proletarian culture’.” It was delivered by David Walsh, the arts editor of the World Socialist Web Site, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Part 1 was posted September 30, part 2 on October 1 and part 3 on October 3.

Lecture seven: Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over “proletarian culture”

Part 3

By David Walsh, 3 October 2005

The following is the third part of the lecture “Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over ‘proletarian culture’.” It was delivered by David Walsh, the arts editor of the World Socialist Web Site, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Part 1 was posted September 30, part 2 on October 1. The lecture will appear in four parts.

Lecture seven: Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over “proletarian culture”

Part 2

By David Walsh, 1 October 2005

The following is the second part of the lecture “Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over ‘proletarian culture’.” It was delivered by David Walsh, the arts editor of the World Socialist Web Site, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Part one was posted September 30. The lecture will appear in four parts.

Lecture seven: Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over “proletarian culture”

Part 1

By David Walsh, 30 September 2005

The following is the first part of the lecture “Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over ‘proletarian culture’.” It was delivered by David Walsh, the arts editor of the World Socialist Web Site, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It will appear in four parts. (See Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4)

Marxism, art and the Soviet debate over “proletarian culture”

By David Walsh, 30 September 2005

This lecture was delivered by David Walsh, the arts editor of the World Socialist Web Site, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lecture six: Socialism in one country or permanent revolution

Part 3

By Bill Van Auken, 29 September 2005

The following is the third and final part of the lecture “Socialism in one country or permanent revolution.” It was delivered by Bill Van Auken at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture is being posted in three parts. Part 1 was posted September 27; Part 2 was posted September 28.

Lecture six: Socialism in one country or permanent revolution

Part 2

By Bill Van Auken, 28 September 2005

The following is the second part of the lecture “Socialism in one country or permanent revolution.” It was delivered by Bill Van Auken at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture is being posted in three parts. Part 1 was posted September 27.

Socialism in one country or permanent revolution

By Bill Van Auken, 27 September 2005

The essential theoretical issues that arose in the struggle over these two opposed perspectives were not only fought out by Trotsky against the Stalinist bureaucracy in the latter half of the 1920s, but have reemerged as the subject of repeated struggles within the Fourth International itself.

Lecture six: Socialism in one country or permanent revolution

Part 1

By Bill Van Auken, 27 September 2005

The following is the first part of the lecture “Socialism in one country or permanent revolution.” It was delivered by Bill Van Auken at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. (See Part 2 and Part 3).

Lecture five

World War I: The breakdown of capitalism

Part 5

By Nick Beams, 26 September 2005

This is the fifth and final part of the lecture “World War I: The breakdown of capitalism”. It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. (See Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4).

Lecture five

World War I: The breakdown of capitalism

Part 4

By Nick Beams, 24 September 2005

This is the fourth part of the lecture “World War I: The breakdown of capitalism”. It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will appear in five instalments. (See Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 5).

Lecture five

World War I: The breakdown of capitalism

Part 3

By Nick Beams, 23 September 2005

This is the third part of the lecture “World War I: The breakdown of capitalism”. It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will appear in five parts. (See Part 1, Part 2, Part 4 and Part 5).

Letters on the SEP/WSWS Summer School

22 September 2005

The following are a selection of letters sent to the World Socialist Web Site on the series of lectures given at the Summer School of the Socialist Equality Party and WSWS.

Lecture five

World War I: The breakdown of capitalism

Part 2

By Nick Beams, 22 September 2005

This is the second part of the lecture “World War I: The breakdown of capitalism”. It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will appear in five parts. (See Part 1, Part 3, Part 4 and Part 5).

Lecture five:

World War I: The breakdown of capitalism

Part 1

By Nick Beams, 21 September 2005

This is the first part of the lecture “World War I: The breakdown of capitalism”. It was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will appear in five parts. (See Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 and Part 5).

World War I: The breakdown of capitalism

By Nick Beams, 21 September 2005

This lecture was delivered by Nick Beams, the national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of Australia and a member of the WSWS Editorial Board, at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lecture four: Marxism, history and the science of perspective

Part 6

By David North, 20 September 2005

This is the sixth and final part of the lecture “Marxism, history and the science of perspective,” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Part 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were posted September 14-19.

Lecture four: Marxism, history and the science of perspective

Part 5

By David North, 19 September 2005

This is the fifth part of the lecture “Marxism, history and the science of perspective,” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be posted in six installments. Part 1, 2, 3 and 4 were posted on September 14-17.

Lecture four: Marxism, history and the science of perspective

Part 4

By David North, 17 September 2005

This is the fourth part of the lecture “Marxism, history and the science of perspective,” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be posted in six installments. Part 1, 2 and 3 were posted on September 14-16.

Lecture four: Marxism, history and the science of perspective

Part 3

By David North, 16 September 2005

This is the third part of the lecture “Marxism, history and the science of perspective,” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be posted in six installments. Part 1 and 2 were posted on September 14 and 15.

Lecture four: Marxism, history and the science of perspective

Part 2

By David North, 15 September 2005

This is the second part of the lecture “Marxism, history and the science of perspective,” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be posted in six installments. Part 1 was posted on September 14.

Marxism, history and the science of perspective

By David North, 14 September 2005

This lecture was delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/ WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lecture four: Marxism, history and the science of perspective

Part 1

By David North, 14 September 2005

This is the first part of the lecture “Marxism, history and the science of perspective,” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture will be posted in six installments. (See Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6).

Lecture two: Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century

Part 3

By David North, 5 September 2005

This is the third and final part of the lecture “Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Parts 1 and 2 were posted September 2 and September 3.

Lecture two: Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century

Part 2

By David North, 3 September 2005

This is the second part of the lecture “Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture was posted in three parts. Part 1 was posted September 2 and Part 3 on September 5.

Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century

By David North, 2 September 2005

This lecture was delivered by World Socialist Web SiteEditorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lecture two: Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century

Part 1

By David North, 2 September 2005

This is the first part of the lecture “Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century” delivered by World Socialist Web Site Editorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The lecture was posted in three parts. Part 2 was posted September 3 and Part 3 on September 5.

Marxism versus revisionism on the eve of the twentieth century

By David North, 2 September 2005

This lecture was delivered by World Socialist Web SiteEditorial Board Chairman David North at the Socialist Equality Party/WSWS summer school held August 14 to August 20, 2005 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Letters on “An intellectual pygmy denounces Trotsky”

10 August 2005

The following is a selection of letters to the World Socialist Web Site on “An intellectual pygmy denounces Trotsky”

Sixty years since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings

Part three: American militarism and the nuclear threat today

By Joseph Kishore, 9 August 2005

The following is the third and final part in a series marking 60 years since the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Part one, describing the destructive effects of the bomb on the population of the two cities, was published on August 6. Part two, analyzing the motivations behind the decision to drop the bomb, was published on August 8.

Sixty years since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings

Part two: American imperialism and the atom bomb

By Joseph Kishore, 8 August 2005

The following is the second in a three-part series marking 60 years since the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Part one, describing the destructive effects of the bomb on the population of the two cities, was published on August 6. Part three will be published on August 9.

Sixty years since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings

Part one: Prompt and utter destruction

By Joseph Kishore, 6 August 2005

The following is the first in a three-part series marking 60 years since the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Part two was published on August 8 and part three on August 9.

A letter and reply on an “intellectual pygmy”

5 August 2005

The World Socialist Web Site has received a number of letters in response to “An intellectual pygmy denounces Trotsky” . Several readers have objected to the use of the phrase “intellectual pygmy.” Below is one reader’s letter and a reply from David North.

An intellectual pygmy denounces Trotsky

By David North, 2 August 2005

In periods of political reaction, innumerable forms of social backwardness, ignorance and stupidity come into their own. All the official organs of public opinion exude an unpleasant smell. Enjoying the protection of the powers that be, reassured by the debased state of intellectual life, and reasonably confident that no one will have the opportunity to protest as they pass wind in public, contemporary “opinion makers” feel no shame about what they say or write.

Livio Maitan, 1923-2004: a critical assessment

Part 3: A “Trotskyist” in Rifondazione Comunista

By Peter Schwarz, 6 November 2004

This is the third and final part of a series on the political career of Livio Maitan, who died in Rome in September at the age of 81. With Ernest Mandel, Maitan was one of the best-known representatives of the United Secretariat of the Fourth International, an international revisionist tendency. The first part of this series was posted November 4 and the second part on November 5.

Livio Maitan, 1923-2004: a critical assessment

Part 2: Castro, Che Guevara and the armed struggle

By Peter Schwarz, 5 November 2004

This is the second part of a three-part series on the political career of Livio Maitan, who died in Rome in September at the age of 81. With Ernest Mandel, Maitan was one of the best-known representatives of the United Secretariat of the Fourth International, an international revisionist tendency. The first part of this series was posted November 4. The final part will be posted later this week.

Livio Maitan, 1923-2004: a critical assessment

By Peter Schwarz, 4 November 2004

We are publishing here the first part of a three-part series on the political career of Livio Maitan, who died in Rome in September. We will post the second and third parts in the course of this week.

German war crimes in Italy: part three

A scorched-earth policy

By Elisabeth Zimmermann, 9 October 2004

This is the third article in a three-part series based on two books that appeared in the 1990s: Friedrich Andrae’s Auch Gegen Frauen und Kinder—Der Krieg der Deutschen Wehrmacht Gegen die Zivilbevölkerung in Italien 1943-1945 [Against Women and Children—the German Wehrmacht’s War Against the Civilian Population in Italy, 1943-45] (Piper Verlag München, Zürich, 1994); and Gerhard Schreiber’s Deutsche Kriegsverbrechen in Italien—Täter, Opfer, Strafverfolgung [German War Crimes in Italy—Perpetrators, Victims, Punishment] (Becksche Reihe, Verlag C.H. Beck, München, 1996). The first part was posted on October 7, and the second was posted on October 8.

German war crimes in Italy: part two

Nazi terror and the resistance in Italy

By Elisabeth Zimmermann, 8 October 2004

This is the second article in a three-part series based on two books that appeared in the 1990s: Friedrich Andrae’s Auch Gegen Frauen und Kinder—Der Krieg der Deutschen Wehrmacht Gegen die Zivilbevölkerung in Italien 1943-1945 [Against Women and Children—the German Wehrmacht’s War Against the Civilian Population in Italy, 1943-45] (Piper Verlag München, Zürich, 1994); and Gerhard Schreiber’s Deutsche Kriegsverbrechen in Italien—Täter, Opfer, Strafverfolgung [German War Crimes in Italy—Perpetrators, Victims, Punishment] (Becksche Reihe, Verlag C.H. Beck, München, 1996). The first part was posted on October 7.

Citizen of the world: a brief survey of the life and times of Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

By Ann Talbot, 30 September 2004

The lecture below by World Socialist Web Site correspondent Ann Talbot was presented on September 24 to a meeting in Britain organised by the Rotherham Metropolitan District Local History Council, as part of the Rotherham Arts Festival.

US Justice Department opens investigation into the 1955 murder of Emmett Till

By Helen Halyard, 11 June 2004

The federal Justice Department announced last month that it would reopen its long-suppressed investigation into the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, a black 14-year-old from Chicago who was the victim of a brutal racist murder while visiting family in Money, Mississippi.

Trotskyism in postwar USSR: the record of an anti-Stalinist youth group in the early 1950s

By Vladimir Volkov, 5 June 2004

In the Soviet Union throughout the post-World War II era anti-Stalinist opposition groups continuously emerged that opposed the bureaucratic regime from the left—from the point of view of the necessity of reviving Soviet democracy and internationalism, as well as restoring the norms of party life that existed in the Bolshevik Party in the first years following the October Revolution of 1917.

Forty years since the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial

Part 3—Juridical cover-up of Nazi crimes

By Sybille Fuchs, 29 April 2004

The following is the last in a three-part series of articles.

Forty years since the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial

Part 2—The accused: Henchmen acting under orders

By Sybille Fuchs, 28 April 2004

The following is the second in a three-part series of articles.

Forty years since the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial

Part one—a belated inquiry

By Sybille Fuchs, 27 April 2004

The following is the first in a three-part series of articles.

The anti-Semitism and anti-Bolshevism of the German Nazis: a letter and reply

23 December 2003

The following letter was written in response to the article “Germany: MP’s anti-Semitic speech exposes ugly face of the CDU,” posted by the World Socialist Web Sitelast November 14. The letter was originally circulated via a mailing list of disgruntled supporters of the German Greens. We publish it with a reply by the WSWS.

Meetings on 50 years of the International Committee of the Fourth International

Nick Beams: “The program of the ICFI has stood the test of time”

23 December 2003

The Socialist Equality Party in Australia held a public meeting in Sydney on December 21 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). The meeting was part of a series held internationally over the last two months to review the significance of the ICFI’s protracted struggle against the opportunist tendency led by Michel Pablo and Ernest Mandel that definitively broke with the fundamental principles of the Trotskyist movement in 1953. A broad cross-section of party supporters, WSWS readers, students, workers and pensioners attended the Sydney meeting.

On the 40th anniversary of the Kennedy assassination

12 December 2003

Dear Messrs. North and Vann:

Meetings on 50 years of the International Committee of the Fourth International

Chris Marsden: The split with the WRP and the ascendancy of Trotskyism

8 December 2003

On November 16, 1953, the US Socialist Workers Party (SWP) published an Open Letter that called upon orthodox Trotskyists all over the world to unite in a struggle against a revisionist tendency under the leadership of Michel Pablo, at that time the secretary of the Fourth International. The Open Letter, drawn up by James P. Cannon, led to the foundation of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).

Meetings on 50 years of the International Committee of the Fourth International

Peter Schwarz: “The founding principles have been confirmed”

By Peter Schwarz, 6 December 2003

On November 16, 1953, the US Socialist Workers Party (SWP) published an Open Letter that called upon orthodox Trotskyists all over the world to unite in a struggle against a revisionist tendency under the leadership of Michel Pablo, at that time the secretary of the Fourth International. The Open Letter, drawn up by James P. Cannon, led to the foundation of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).

The California recall in historical perspective: Lessons of Upton Sinclair’s 1934 campaign

By Shannon Jones, 3 December 2003

The recall of California Democratic Governor Gray Davis and the installation of film celebrity Arnold Schwarzenegger was a significant event in the political life of the United States. In particular, the California election exposed the impotence of the Democratic Party, which once again, as in the Clinton impeachment and the stolen presidential election of 2000, proved incapable of mounting a serious struggle against the extreme right.

Reflections on the 40th anniversary of the Kennedy assassination

By David North and Bill Vann, 22 November 2003

In November 1963, 37 years before George W. Bush was installed as president by means of a political conspiracy, the assassination of John F. Kennedy demonstrated how a man could be removed from the presidency by conspiratorial means.

David North addresses Sri Lankan Trotskyists on the 50th anniversary of the ICFI

By a correspondent, 21 November 2003

To mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI), David North, Chairman of the WSWS International Editorial Board, addressed a meeting of the Socialist Equality Party (SEP) in Sri Lanka on November 16 in the capital Colombo. The gathering took place in the midst of a political crisis on the island provoked one week earlier by the president’s threat to invoke a state of emergency.

The Heritage We Defend: A Contribution to the History of the Fourth International

Chapter 17: The Split in the Fourth International

15 November 2003

It is hardly surprising that the renegade Michael Banda centers his denunciation of the International Committee on the document which summoned Trotskyists all over the world to fight a revisionist cancer which threatened to destroy the world party of socialist revolution.

The Heritage We Defend: A Contribution to the History of the Fourth International

Chapter 18: James P. Cannon’s “Open Letter”

15 November 2003

For all the vehemence of Banda’s denunciation of the “Open Letter,” the readers of his “27 Reasons” will search in vain for any analysis of this document. He vilifies it as the “epistle from the philistines of ‘orthodox Trotskyism,’” an “arrogant ultimatum,” an “opportunist response” and an “equivocal and undignified maneuver.” But he says nothing about the political content of the “Open Letter.” He does not say whether he agrees or disagrees with its summation of the principles of Trotskyism, its characterization of Pablo’s line as revisionist, or even its assertion that irreconcilable differences exist between Trotskyism and Pabloism. Nor does Banda explain why he personally supported the “Open Letter” in 1953.

WSWS republishes extracts from The Heritage We Defend by David North, chairman of the WSWS International Editorial Board

15 November 2003

On the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI), the World Socialist Web Site is proud to republish two key chapters from The Heritage We Defend: A Contribution to the History of the Fourth International, by David North, chairman of the WSWS International Editorial Board and national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party in the United States.

Women in the Russian Revolution

The letters of Natalia Sedova to Leon Trotsky

By Vladimir Volkov, 1 July 2003

The 1917 Revolution in Russia not only raised millions of workers and peasants to historical life. It also advanced to the center stage of world events a whole layer of distinguished representatives of the socialist intelligentsia, bearers of the revolution’s political consciousness, who had imbibed the international traditions of European social democracy and the best heritage of European culture in general.

Sixty years since the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

By Harvey Thompson, 27 May 2003

“... The decline of capitalism has suspended the Jews between heaven and earth.” (1)

"These the times ... this the man": an appraisal of historian Christopher Hill

By Ann Talbot, 25 March 2003

Christopher Hill, the renowned expert on seventeenth century English history, who died on February 24 at the age of 91, lived through the great upheavals of the twentieth century. Its wars and revolutions moulded the mind of a historian who looked back from one revolutionary century to another, giving him a unique insight into his subject and his books a lasting value that few historians can claim.

A conversation with historian James M. McPherson

How the US Civil War became “a remorseless revolutionary struggle”

By David Walsh, 28 February 2003

A recent conversation with historian James McPherson of Princeton University was prompted by two events: the appearance of Martin Scorsese’s Gangs of New York, which purports to deal with an episode of the Civil War, and the publication of Professor McPherson’s most recent work, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, which studies one of the turning points in that same conflict.

New findings on Stonehenge point to continent-wide socio-cultural network

By Ann Talbot, 24 February 2003

Archaeologists have discovered that a body excavated near Stonehenge last year is a man who originated in Switzerland, Austria or southern Germany. The 4,000-year-old burial is contemporary with one of the early phases of building at Stonehenge, suggesting that the man may have been connected with the monument.

TV film on death of Frank Olson

German documentary charges US used biological weapons in Korean War

By Peter Schwarz, 13 November 2002

The claim by the Bush administration that Baghdad is threatening the world with weapons of mass destruction is the main pretext for its war preparations against Iraq. However, a documentary recently broadcast by the German state television channel, ARD, suggests that the US government is itself hiding biological warfare programs from the rest of the world, and actually employed such weapons in 1952 during the Korean War.

"The End is the Beginning" completes series on socialist opposition to Stalinism in the USSR

Final volume of ground-breaking history presented at tribute to Vadim Rogovin

By our own correspondent, 9 July 2002

The seventh and final volume of “Was There an Alternative to Stalinism” by Marxist historian and sociologist Vadim Z. Rogovin was presented on May 15 at the Moscow Institute for the Development of the Press. The meeting was organised by Vadim’s widow, Galina Rogovina-Valuzhenich, and was timed to commemorate what would have been Vadim’s sixty-fifth birthday.

A tribute to Vadim Rogovin: "A passion for historical truth"

By Galina Rogovina-Valuzhenich, 20 June 2002

Galina Rogovina-Valuzhenich, the widow of Russian Marxist historian and sociologist Vadim Zakharovich Rogovin, spoke at a May 15 meeting in Moscow to commemorate what would have been the sixty-fifth birthday of her husband, who died in September 1998. Also attending the meeting were surviving children of Russian Left Oppositionists murdered by the Stalinist regime, scholars who worked with Vadim at the Institute of Sociology in Moscow, representatives from several socialist tendencies in Russia and many friends. David North, editorial board chairman of the World Socialist Web Site, delivered the principal address on the significance of Vadim’s life and work. Galina Rogovina’s remarks are reprinted below.

A Tribute to Vadim Rogovin

By David North, 20 May 2002

These remarks were delivered at a meeting held in Moscow on May 15, 2002, on the fifth anniversary of the death of Vadim Rogovin. Among those attending the gathering were surviving children of Russian Left Oppositionists murdered by the Stalinist regime, scholars who worked with Vadim at the Institute of Sociology in Moscow, the representatives of several socialist tendencies in Russia and many friends.

The debate in Germany over the crimes of Hitler’s Wehrmacht

Part 2

By Wolfgang Weber, 20 September 2001

This is the second and concluding part of a two-part article on the debate in Germany surrounding an exhibit on the crimes of Hitler’s army (the Wehrmacht). Part one was posted Wednesday, September 19.

The debate in Germany over the crimes of Hitler’s Wehrmacht

Part 1

By Wolfgang Weber, 19 September 2001

This is the first part of a two-part article on the debate in Germany surrounding an exhibit on the crimes of the German army (Wehrmacht ) under the Nazis. The second part will be posted Thursday, September 20.

A landmark in the fight against capital punishment in the US

Lessons of the 1924 Leopold and Loeb murder case

By Shannon Jones, 8 September 2001

The United States remains one of the few advanced industrialized countries in the world that still practices capital punishment. Since the US Supreme Court reinstated the death penalty in 1976, 731 individuals have been executed. These condemned inmates have included women, the mentally ill, foreign nationals and those sentenced to death for crimes committed when they were juveniles.

New German edition of Leon Trotsky’s Problems of Everyday Life

By Wolfgang Zimmermann, 18 July 2001

The following is the forward to a new German edition of Leon Trotsky’s Problems of Everyday Life , just published by Arbeiterpresse Verlag, the publishing house of the Socialist Equality Party of Germany.

Toward a reconsideration of Trotsky’s legacy and his place in the history of the 20th century

29 June 2001

The following is the text of a lecture given January 21, 2001 by David North, the chairman of the International Editorial Board of the WSWS and national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party of the US, to an international school held in Sydney by the Socialist Equality Party of Australia.

Lionel Jospin and Trotskyism: the debate over the French prime minister’s past

By Peter Schwarz, 27 June 2001

For three weeks, the French press has been full of revelations about the alleged Trotskyist past of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin.

Documentary on Scottsboro case distorts 1930s struggle against racism in US South

By Fred Mazelis, 23 April 2001

On March 25, 1931, nine black youth, ranging in age from 13 to 21, were arrested in Alabama on charges of raping two young white women. Thus began the notorious Scottsboro case, a racist frame-up that led to years of trials and legal appeals, along with mass protests in the US and around the world.

A presidential family in time of war

By Joseph Kay, 7 March 2001

Abraham and Mary Lincoln: A House Divided, Produced and directed by David Grubin, a presentation of the Public Broadcasting System series The American Experience

The Cuban missile crisis in historical perspective: some thoughts on the film Thirteen Days

By Nancy Russell, 7 February 2001

Thirteen Days , directed by Roger Donaldson, written by David Self.

Six hundred years since the birth of Johannes Gutenberg—inventor of the printing press

An assessment of his significance

By Daniel Woreck and Parwini Zora, 3 January 2001

“The whole world admits unhesitatingly; and there can be no doubt about this, that Gutenberg's invention is the incomparably greatest event in the history of the world”—Mark Twain

A lesson from history on the US election crisis

Hayes-Tilden dispute of 1876 foreshadowed eruption of class conflict

By Shannon Jones, 21 December 2000

One hundred twenty-four years ago another disputed presidential election took place under conditions of sharp social polarization in the United States. The presidential contest of 1876 between Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes resulted in a rightward political realignment within the ruling class in the face of rising class tensions.

Trotsky's Europe and America: new edition of seminal essays from the 1920s published in Germany

By Peter Schwarz, 10 October 2000

Arbeiterpresse Verlag, the Marxist publishing house in Germany, has published a new edition of Europe and America , a collection of speeches and essays written by Leon Trotsky in the 1920s. We are publishing below the new foreword to this important work.

A veteran of the struggle against fascism and Stalinism

Nathan Steinberger celebrates his 90th birthday in Berlin

By Verena Nees, 9 August 2000

On July 16 Nathan Steinberger celebrated his ninetieth birthday in Berlin. He is one of the few former members of the German Communist Party (KPD) who survived the Stalinist prison camps of the Soviet Union and retained their fundamental socialist convictions despite this horrific experience.

An assessment of Peter Novick's The Holocaust in American Life

By Nancy Russell, 29 June 2000

The Holocaust in American Life by Peter Novick, published by Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999. The author is a nationally prominent professor of history at the University of Chicago. His 1988 book, That Noble Dream: The “Objectivity Question” and the American Historical Profession, was awarded the prize for best US history book of the year by the American Historical Association.

Lincoln letters posted on Library of Congress web site

By Shannon Jones, 10 May 2000

The first selection of a planned posting of some 20,000 letters to and from Abraham Lincoln are now available on the Library of Congress (LOC) web site [http://www.loc.gov]. The initial batch, 2,200 letters, posted in February, date mainly from 1849 to 1865. A large portion relate to Lincoln's 1858 run for the US Senate against Stephen Douglas and the presidential election campaign of 1860.

An exchange on G. E. M de Ste. Croix, historian of Ancient Greek society

By Ann Talbot, 8 April 2000

The following is an exchange between a World Socialist Web Site reader and Ann Talbot, whose obituary of the eminent British historian, G. E. M. de Ste. Croix., author of The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World, appeared on the WSWS March 21. [G.E.M. de Ste. Croix: A lifelong empathy with the oppressed]

Stalin's Neo-NEP to be published in German

New volume of Vadim Rogovin's study of opposition to Stalinism in the USSR presented at Leipzig Book Fair

By Wolfgang Zimmermann, 5 April 2000

Arbeiterpresse Verlag, the publishing house of the PSG (Socialist Equality Party), the German section of the International Committee of the Fourth International, presented the German translation of volume three of Vadim Rogovin's multi-volume series Was There an Alternative? at the Leipzig Book Fair. The book will be published in May. Volumes four and five, 1937—Year of Terror and The Party of the Executed, have already been translated into German.

Verdict in David Irving case due in two weeks

Libel suit brought by apologist for Nazi role in Holocaust concludes in London

By Richard Tyler & Peter Reydt, 24 March 2000

The 10-week trial of a libel suit brought by British author David Irving against American historian Deborah Lipstadt concluded Wednesday March 15, as closing arguments were delivered before a packed London courtroom.

Author of The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World dies

G.E.M. de Ste Croix: A lifelong empathy with the oppressed

By Ann Talbot, 21 March 2000

Few historians can claim two masterpieces to their name. This is the case with Geoffrey de Ste Croix, the author of The Origins of the Peloponnesian War and The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World, who died in Oxford on February 5 at the age of 89.

The report of former forced-labor prisoner Nicholas Livkovsky

By Carola Kleinert and Brigitte Fehlau, 17 March 2000

Nicholas Livkovsky took part in the February 19 conference in Slubice, Poland on the history of the Gestapo prison camp "Oderblick", which was located in Schwetig, near Frankfurt/Oder, Germany and Slubice (see accompanying article). Livkovsky was imprisoned there from July to November 1942, and his story speaks for that of tens of thousands who suffered the same fate. He has never received compensation for what he suffered, and in all likelihood never will, because what was done to him does not fulfil the legal criteria entitling him to compensation. Nicholas Livkovsky, now 76 years old, lives in the Polish town Rzepin, not far from the German border. The following is his report on what he experienced:

The history of the former Gestapo concentration camp "Oderblick" in Schwetig/Swiecko

By Carola Kleinert and Brigritte Fehlau, 17 March 2000

On February 19 a conference on the history of the former concentration camp “Oderblick” took place in the Polish town of Slubice, which lies on the border with Germany. The conference was organised by the Project for German-Polish History of the Polonicum College, a joint institution of the universities of Slubice and the neighbouring German town of Frankfurt/Oder.

Archaeological find opens the pages of Ancient Greek history

By Sandy English, 28 February 2000

Archaeologists have announced that a discovery in 1998 of a mass grave of 200-250 cremated bodies at a construction site in Athens may contain the remnants of soldiers who fought for democratic Athens against oligarchic Sparta in the opening years of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), the prolonged struggle between the two great powers of ancient Greece that ended in defeat for Athens.

A man of insight and courage

Giordano Bruno, philosopher and scientist, burnt at the stake 400 years ago

By Frank Gaglioti, 16 February 2000

Four centuries ago today, on February 16, 1600, the Roman Catholic Church executed Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher and scientist, for the crime of heresy. He was taken from his cell in the early hours of the morning to the Piazza dei Fiori in Rome and burnt alive at the stake. To the last, the Church authorities were fearful of the ideas of a man who was known throughout Europe as a bold and brilliant thinker. In a peculiar twist to the gruesome affair, the executioners were ordered to tie his tongue so that he would be unable to address those gathered.